#62. astrodeep200407 a g HUDF heic0611aa
#62. astrodeep200407 a g HUDF heic0611aa

Click on All Sizes button and select Original to see highest resolution image.

In the full HUDF view, saturating the colors reveals huge regions with very different overall colors — this deserves research.

www.spacetelescope.org/images/html/zoomable/heic0611a.html Zoomable

The boxes are 3 arcsec wide, 100×100 pixels, with 0.03 arc-second per pixel. They are in order of apparent brightness, from 1 to 28.

The half-light galaxy diameters are about 1.6 kpc = 5220 Ly, as 1 kpc = 1000 parsecs = 3262 Ly. Our Milky Way galaxy is about 100,000 Ly wide.

notable bright blue tiny sources on darker 3D fractal web in HUDF VLT ESO 28 images from 506 galaxies, z about 6 , RJ Bouwens, GD Illingworth, JP Blakeslee, M Franx 2008.02.04 draft 36 page: Rich Murray 2008.08.17
rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_08_01_archive.htm
Sunday, August 17, 2008
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www.flickr.com/photos/rmforall/1363979470/in/photostream/

Double click on photo and click on All Sizes button and select Original to see highest resolution image, as well as some smaller images.

www.spacetelescope.org/images/html/zoomable/heic0611a.html Zoomable
The boxes are 3 arcsec wide, 100×100 pixels, with 0.03 arc-second per pixel. They are in order of apparent brightness, from 1 to 28.

The HUDF is made of 0.03 arc-second pixels, 6200X6200, 186X186 arc-seconds, 3.1X3.1 arc-minutes, about a tenth of the width of the Moon or Sun, 0.5X0.5 degrees.

‘In this image, blue and green correspond to colors that can be seen by the human eye, such as hot, young, blue stars and the glow of Sun-like stars in the disks of galaxies.

Red represents near-infrared light, which is invisible to the human eye, such as the red glow of dust-enshrouded galaxies.’

Four wavelength filters collected the B435, V606, i775, z850 wavelength images for the observed blue, violet, near infrared, infrared images — combined in this vast image with tiny 0.03 arc-second pixels.

‘Galaxy sizes: Typical i-dropouts at z850,AB about 27 (from the HUDF-Ps and HUDF) have PSF-corrected half-light radii of about 0.8 kpc [2610 Ly] or about 0.14 arc-second (Figure 6: §3.7). [ So diameter is 1.6 kpc = 5220 Ly, as 1 kpc = 1000 parsecs = 3262 Ly. Our Milky Way galaxy is about 100,000 Ly wide. ]’

‘The reheating, driven by the galaxies ultraviolet starlight, transformed the gas between galaxies from a cold, dark hydrogen soup to a hot, transparent plasma over only a few hundred million years.

With Hubble’s help, astronomers are now beginning to see the kinds of galaxies that brought about the reheating.’

‘The first 900 million years (Myr) to redshift z about 6 (the first seven per cent of the age of the Universe) remains largely unexplored for the formation of galaxies.’

‘It is not at all clear how galaxies built up from the first stars when the Universe was about 300Myr old (z about 12-15) to z about 6, just 600Myr later.’

‘The nearest galaxies — the larger, brighter, well-defined spirals and ellipticals — thrived about 1 billion years ago, when the cosmos was 13 billion years old.’

‘The image required 800 exposures taken over the course of 400 Hubble orbits around Earth. The total amount of exposure time was 11.3 days, taken between Sept. 24, 2003 and Jan. 16, 2004.’

www.spacetelescope.org/images/html/heic0611a.html

Probing the distant Universe for young galaxies

This Hubble Space Telescope image shows 28 of the brightest of 506 young galaxies that existed when the universe was less than 1 billion years old.

The galaxies were uncovered in a study of two of the most distant surveys of the cosmos, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), completed in 2004, and the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), made in 2003.

Just a few years ago, astronomers had not spotted any galaxies that existed significantly less than 1 billion years after the Big Bang.

The galaxies spied in the HUDF and GOODS surveys are blue galaxies brimming with star birth.

The large image at left shows the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, taken by the Hubble telescope.

The numbers next to the small blue boxes correspond to close-up views of 28 of the newly found galaxies at right. [ arranged by apparent brightness from 1 to 28 ]

The galaxies in the postage-stamp size images appear red because of their tremendous distance from Earth. The blue light from their young stars took nearly 13 billion years to arrive at Earth. During the journey, the blue light was shifted to red light due to the expansion of space.

Credit: NASA, ESA, R. Bouwens and G. Illingworth (University of California, Santa Cruz, USA)

www.spacetelescope.org/news/html/heic0611.html

News Release — heic0611: Hubble finds hundreds of young galaxies in the early Universe

21-Sep-2006: Astronomers analyzing two of the deepest views of the cosmos made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have uncovered a gold mine of galaxies, more than 500 that existed less than a billion years after the Big Bang.

These galaxies thrived when the cosmos was less than 7 percent of its present age of 13.7 billion years.

This sample represents the most comprehensive compilation of galaxies in the early Universe, researchers said.

The discovery is scientifically invaluable for understanding the origin of galaxies, considering that just a decade ago early galaxy formation was largely uncharted territory.

Astronomers had not seen even one galaxy that existed when the Universe was a billion years old, so finding 500 in a Hubble survey is a significant leap forward for cosmologists.

The galaxies unveiled by Hubble are smaller than today’s giant galaxies and very bluish in colour, indicating they are ablaze with star birth.

The images appear red because of the galaxies’ tremendous distance from Earth.

The blue light from their young stars took nearly 13 billion years to arrive at Earth.

During the journey, the blue light was shifted to red light due to the expansion of space.

‘Finding so many of these dwarf galaxies, but so few bright ones, is evidence for galaxies building up from small pieces — merging together as predicted by the hierarchical theory of galaxy formation,’ said astronomer Rychard Bouwens of the University of California, Santa Cruz, USA who led the Hubble study.

Bouwens and his team spied these galaxies in an analysis of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), completed in 2004, and the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), made in 2003.

The results were presented on August 17 at the 2006 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, and will be published in the November 20 issue of the Astrophysical Journal.

The findings also show that these dwarf galaxies were producing stars at a furious rate, about ten times faster than is happening now in nearby galaxies.

Astronomers have long debated whether the hottest stars in early star-forming galaxies, such as those in this study, may have provided enough radiation to reheat the cold hydrogen gas that existed between galaxies in the early Universe.

The gas had been cooling since the Big Bang.

‘Seeing all of these starburst galaxies provides evidence that there were enough galaxies 1 billion years after the Big Bang to finish reheating the Universe,’ explained team member Garth Illingworth of the University of California, Santa Cruz. ‘It highlights a period of fundamental change in the Universe, and we are seeing the galaxy population that brought about that change.’

In terms of human lifetimes, cosmic events happen very slowly.

The evolution of galaxies and stars, for example, occurs over billions of years.

Astronomers, therefore, rarely witness dramatic, relatively brief transitions that changed the Universe.

One such event was the Universe is ‘reheating’.

The reheating, driven by the galaxies ultraviolet starlight, transformed the gas between galaxies from a cold, dark hydrogen soup to a hot, transparent plasma over only a few hundred million years.

With Hubble’s help, astronomers are now beginning to see the kinds of galaxies that brought about the reheating.

Just a few years ago, astronomers did not have the technology to hunt for faraway galaxies in large numbers.

The installation of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope in 2002 allowed astronomers to probe some of the deepest recesses of our Universe.

Astronomers used the ACS to observe distant galaxies in the HUDF and GOODS public surveys.

Another major step in the exploration of the Universe’s earliest years will occur if Hubble undergoes its next upgrade with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 3 (WFC3).

The WFC3’s infrared sensitivity will allow it to detect galaxies that are so far away their starlight has been stretched to infrared wavelengths by the expanding Universe.

The galaxies uncovered so far promise that many more galaxies at even greater distances are awaiting discovery by the NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled to launch in 2013.

Co-author Marijn Franx, member of the ESA JWST NIRSPEC science team, explains: ‘The JWST will be able to see even further back into the early Universe, and glimpse the first objects that formed.
ESA’s NIRSPEC instrument, can even measure the exact distances of these objects.’

Notes for editors:

The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.

The members of the science team are Rychard Bouwens and Garth Illingworth (University of California, Santa Cruz),
John Blakeslee (Washington State University),
and Marijn Franx (Leiden University).

NASA, ESA, R. Bouwens and G. Illingworth (University of California, Santa Cruz, USA)

NASA’s press release

Contacts:

Marijn Franx
Leiden Observatory, Leiden, the Netherlands
Tel: +31-71-5275870
E-mail: franx@strw.leidenuniv;

Rychard Bouwens
University of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA
Tel: +1-831-459-5276
E-mail: bouwens@ucolick.org;

Garth Illingworth
University of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA
Tel: +1-831-459-2843
E-mail: gdi@ucolick.org;

John Blakeslee
Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA
Tel: +1-509-335-2414
E-mail: jblakes@wsu.edu;

Lars Lindberg Christensen
Hubble/ESA, Garching, Germany
Tel: +49-89-3200-6306
Cellular: +49-173-3872-621
E-mail: lars@eso.org;

Donna Weaver
Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., USA
Tel: +1-410-338-4493
E-mail: dweaver@stsci.edu;

Copyright-free material (more info).

hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2004/07/image/a/

Hubble Ultra Deep Field Image Reveals Galaxies GaloreSTScI-PRC2004-07a

Galaxies, galaxies everywhere — as far as NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope can see. This view of nearly 10,000 galaxies is the deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. Called the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, this galaxy-studded view represents a ‘deep’ core sample of the universe, cutting across billions of light-years.

The snapshot includes galaxies of various ages, sizes, shapes, and colors.

The smallest, reddest galaxies, about 100, may be among the most distant known, existing when the universe was just 800 million years old.

The nearest galaxies — the larger, brighter, well-defined spirals and ellipticals — thrived about 1 billion years ago, when the cosmos was 13 billion years old.

In vibrant contrast to the rich harvest of classic spiral and elliptical galaxies, there is a zoo of oddball galaxies littering the field.

Some look like toothpicks; others like links on a bracelet.

A few appear to be interacting.

These oddball galaxies chronicle a period when the universe was younger and more chaotic.

Order and structure were just beginning to emerge.

The Ultra Deep Field observations, taken by the Advanced Camera for Surveys, represent a narrow, deep view of the cosmos.

Peering into the Ultra Deep Field is like looking through an eight-foot-long soda straw.

In ground-based photographs, the patch of sky in which the galaxies reside (just one-tenth the diameter of the full Moon) is largely empty.

Located in the constellation Fornax, the region is so empty that only a handful of stars within the Milky Way galaxy can be seen in the image.

In this image, blue and green correspond to colors that can be seen by the human eye, such as hot, young, blue stars and the glow of Sun-like stars in the disks of galaxies.

Red represents near-infrared light, which is invisible to the human eye, such as the red glow of dust-enshrouded galaxies.

The image required 800 exposures taken over the course of 400 Hubble orbits around Earth. The total amount of exposure time was 11.3 days, taken between Sept. 24, 2003 and Jan. 16, 2004.

Object Names: Hubble Ultra Deep Field, HUDF
Image Type: Astronomical
Credit: NASA, ESA, S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team

dipastro.pd.astro.it/venice06/oral/Bouwens_Venice06.ppt
RJB, GDI give 40 slide Power Point Import presentation in Venice 2006.03.31

arxiv.org/PS_cache/astro-ph/pdf/0509/0509641v6.pdf 36 page

Draft version February 4, 2008
Preprint typeset using LATEX style emulateapj v. 04/21/05

Galaxies at z about 6: the UV luminosity function and luminosity density from 506 HUDF, HUDF-PS, and GOODS i-dropouts
Rychard J. Bouwens 3, bouwens@ucolick.org;
Garth D. Illingworth 3, www.ucolick.org/~gdi/ gillingw@ucsc.edu;
John P. Blakeslee 4, jblakes@wsu.edu;
Marijn Franx 5 franx@strw.leidenuniv.nl;

1 Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for
Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #9803.
2 Observations have been carried out using the Very Large Telescope at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Paranal
Observatory under program ID: LP168.A-0485.
3 Astronomy Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064
4 Department of Physics & Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2814 and
5 Leiden Observatory, Postbus 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands.
Draft version February 4, 2008

ABSTRACT [ z = redshift due to increasing distance and time from us here and now, where z = 0 ]

We have detected 506 i-dropouts (z about 6 — galaxies) in deep, wide-area HST ACS fields: HUDF, enhanced GOODS, and HUDF-Parallel ACS fields (HUDF-Ps).

The contamination levels are under 8% (i.e., over 92% are at z about 6).

With these samples, we present the most comprehensive, quantitative analyses of z about 6 — galaxies yet and provide optimal measures of the UV luminosity function (LF) and luminosity density at z about 6, and their evolution to z about 3.

We redetermine the size and color evolution from z about 6 to z about 3.

Field-to-field variations (cosmic variance), completeness, flux, and contamination corrections are modeled systematically and quantitatively.

After corrections, we derive a rest-frame continuum UV (about 1350 A) LF at z about 6 that extends to M1350,AB about −17.5 (0.04L*, z=3).

There is strong evidence for evolution of the LF between z about 6 and z about 3, most likely through a brightening (0.6+-0.2 mag) of M* (at 99.7% confidence) though the degree depends upon the faint-end slope.

As expected from hierarchical models, the most luminous galaxies are deficient at z about 6.

Density evolution (phi*) is ruled out at over 99.99% confidence.

Despite large changes in the LF, the luminosity density at z about 6 is similar (0.82 ± 0.21x) to that at z about 3.

Changes in the mean UV color of galaxies from z about 6 to z about 3 suggest an evolution in dust content, indicating the true evolution is substantially larger: at z about 6 the star formation rate density is just about 30% of the z about 3 value.

Our UV luminosity function is consistent with z about 6 galaxies providing the necessary UV flux to reionize the universe.

Subject headings: galaxies: evolution — galaxies: high-redshift

2.1. ACS HUDF
The B435V606i775z850 [colors blue, violet, near infrared, infrared] images used for this analysis are the v1.0 reductions of the HUDF (Beckwith et al. 2006), binned on a 0.03′′ pixel scale.

3.2. i-dropouts in the HUDF
Applying the above selection criteria to the HUDF results in a sample of 122 i-dropouts.

Objects range in magnitude from z850,AB = 25.0 to 29.4 (the 8 d limit).

At z about 6, this corresponds to 0.04 – 2.2 times the characteristic rest-frame UV luminosity at z about 3 (Steidel et al. 1999)…. V606i775z850 color cutouts are provided in Figure 1 for the brightest 28 i-dropouts from the HUDF.

Fig. 1. — Postage stamps (V606i775z850 color images) of the brightest 28 i775-dropouts from the HUDF [ from the 122 galaxies found ].

Objects are ordered in terms of their z850-band magnitude. [infrared]

The z850-band magnitudes and object IDs are shown above and below each object, respectively.

Each postage stamp is 3.0′′ in size.

These high S/N images show definitive evidence for assymetries, mergers, and other interactions — similar to that seen at lower redshifts (z about 2 – 5).

Galaxy sizes: Typical i-dropouts at z850,AB about 27 (from the HUDF-Ps and HUDF) have PSF-corrected half-light radii of about 0.8 kpc [2610 Ly] or about 0.14 arc-second (Figure 6: §3.7). [ So diameter is 1.6 kpc = 5220 Ly, as 1 kpc = 1000 parsecs = 3262 Ly. Our Milky Way galaxy is about 100,000 Ly wide. ]

www.ucolick.org/~gdi/

www.ucolick.org/~gdi/docs/nature_05156.pdf 15 page

LETTERS

Vol 443, 14 September 2006 doi:10.1038/nature05156

Rapid evolution of the most luminous galaxies during the first 900 million years

Rychard J. Bouwens, Garth D. Illingworth

The first 900 million years (Myr) to redshift z about 6 (the first seven per cent of the age of the Universe) remains largely unexplored for the formation of galaxies.

Large samples of galaxies have been found at z about 6 (refs 1-4) but detections at earlier times are uncertain and unreliable.

It is not at all clear how galaxies built up from the first stars when the Universe was about 300Myr old (z about 12-15) to z about 6, just 600Myr later.

Here we report the results of a search for galaxies at z about 7-8, about 700Myr after the Big Bang, using the deepest near-infrared and optical images ever taken.

Under conservative selection criteria we find only one candidate galaxy at z about 7-8, where ten would be expected if there were no evolution in the galaxy population between z about 7-8 and z about 6.

Using less conservative criteria, there are four candidates, where 17 would be expected with no evolution.

This demonstrates that very luminous galaxies are quite rare 700Myr after the Big Bang.

The simplest explanation is that the Universe is just too young to have built up many luminous galaxies at z about 7-8 by the hierarchical merging of small galaxies.


See similar images:

ubiquitous bright blue 1-12 pixel sources on darker 3D fractal web in five 2007.09.06 IR and visible light HUDF images, Nor Pirzkal, Sangeeta Malhotra, James E Rhoads, Chun Xu, — might be clusters of earliest hypernovae in recent cosmological simulations: Rich Murray 2008.08.17
rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_08_01_archive.htm
Sunday, August 17, 2008
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bright blue 1-4 pixel sources on darker 3D fractal web in IR and visible light HUDF images — might be the clusters of earliest hypernovae in the Naoki Yoshida and Lars Hernquist simulation: Rich Murray 2008.07.31
rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_07_01_archive.htm
Thursday, July 31, 2008
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Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@comcast.net
505-501-2298 1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505

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By rmforall@gmail.com on 2007-09-11 20:58:40
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ZOMO writerGame#62. astrodeep200407 a g HUDF heic0611aa#62. astrodeep200407 a g HUDF heic0611aa Click on All Sizes button and select Original to see highest resolution image. In the full HUDF view, saturating the colors reveals huge regions with very different overall colors -- this deserves research. www.spacetelescope.org/images/html/zoomable/heic0611a.html Zoomable The boxes are 3 arcsec wide, 100x100...News&Hot Stuff